Fabrication Driven Design

Architectural design processes and workflows are traditionally driven by functional requirements and structural hierarchy of materials. Nature on the other hand, is impartial to the complex sequences of the synthesis of materials that integrate in a coherent process of morphogenesis. Despite the revolution in computation aided design and interdisciplinary upgradations in the digital fabrication technologies, architectural design processes fail to acknowledge the machines, tools and processes used for fabrication. The realization of specific fabrication processes and their individual constraints often lead to amendments to an already established workflow by making desperate adjustments to rationalize the design.

Our goal is to introduce design processes which are based on the knowledge of the fabrication tools and which incorporate material properties, constraints, tolerances, machine limitations and interactivity inside it. Those intentions and strategies are embedded inside the design workflow through a series of algorithmic strategies for interactive simulation, optimization and digital fabrication of architectural projects in 1:1 scale. Advanced computational tools open new possibilities and demonstrate a precise construction logic from early design stages, having control of cost.

Research Areas



hyperboloid chair_iBAG

3dp Shells




  • Giannopoulou E., Baquero P., Warang A. and Estévez A. T. (2020) “Stripe Segmentation for Branching Shell Structures – AData Set Development as a Learning Process for Fabrication Efficiency and Structural Performance”, in International Journal For Quality Research (Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Social Science & Humanities – Web of Science)
  • Giannopoulou E., Baquero P., Warang A. and Estévez A. T. (2019) “Machine Learning Approach For Biological Pattern Based Shell Structures”, chap. pp.79-83, in S. Bartolo et al. (eds.), Industry 4.0 – Shaping the Future of the Digital World, CRC Press / Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton / Londres, 2021. eBook ISBN 9780367823085.
  • Giannopoulou E., Baquero P., Warang A., Orciuoli A., Estévez A. T. and Brun-Usan M.A. (2019) “Biological pattern based on reaction-diffusion mechanism employed as fabrication strategy for a shell structure”, in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 471 (9), IOP Publishing Ltd. doi:10.1088/1757 899X/471/10/102053 (Scopus) link

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